GHG & Air Pollutant Emissions
Antero’s GHG intensity decreased 39% between 2016 and 2019, even though gas and liquid production volumes increased materially each year. We attribute this significant improvement to our commitment to GHG emission reduction practices.
1. RY2016, RY2017 and RY2018 emissions intensities have been updated from previous reports to utilize a more representative calculation methodology.
2. The GHG Intensity ratio is calculated by dividing the metric tons of CO2e reported to the EPA under Subpart W by the gas equivalent of production (MMscfe). This includes produced gas and liquids. This is a change from years past.
3. The GHG Intensity ratio is calculated by dividing the metric tons of CO2e reported to the EPA under Subpart W by the oil equivalent of production (MBOE). This includes produced gas and liquids. This is a change from years past.
4. The methane leak loss rate is calculated by dividing methane emitted by the methane produced. The methane leak loss rate represented in this report conforms with the ONE Future calculation protocol.
5. Gas-equivalent of production in MMscfe includes gas and liquids.
6. Oil-equivalent of production in MBOE includes gas and liquids.
Scope 1 emissions are a result of our production of natural gas. They are direct emissions that occur at our facilities during drilling, completions, and production. Antero reports under the EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP). As part of the requirement, Antero discloses Scope 1 direct GHG emissions covered under the GHGRP at a basin-wide level (Appalachian Basin and Appalachian Basin Eastern Overthrust) to EPA. Antero also discloses methane emissions as part of total organic compounds released to the Ohio EPA. We calculate emissions using a combination of actual measurements, engineering calculations, and emission factors, as required by each reporting program. The following table presents our total GHG Scope 1 emissions as CO2e, the applicable GHGs covered under the Kyoto Protocol, along with other metrics requested in SASB EM-EP-110a.1.
1. IPCC 4AR GWP.
2. Total GHG emissions are based on emissions reported to the EPA under Subpart W. RY2017 and RY2018 emissions have been updated from previous reports to utilize a more representative calculation methodology.
3. Methane emissions have been updated from previous years to reflect the value in CO2 equivalent (CO2e). CO2e= CH4 x 25.
4. Antero does not emit hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and nitrogen trifluoride.
Total GHG Scope 1 emissions have consistently declined since 2017 and were below 2016 levels in 2019. Emission sources covered under an emission limiting regulation, NSPS OOOO/OOOOa, include tanks, fugitive components, and completion activities. Since the EPA regulates these emission sources to limit their associated emissions it results in a very small percent of our Scope 1 emissions.
Antero’s 2019 Scope 1 emissions can be broken into five categories: combustion, vented emissions, fugitive emissions, flared hydrocarbons, and process emissions. Figure 7 shows the breakdown of emissions in each category.
The main source of Scope 1 emissions is from combustion activities that occur during drilling and ongoing production activities followed by venting emissions from pneumatic devices and liquids unloading after wells are brought online. Emissions from flared hydrocarbons are negligible. As described under the Emission Mitigation Efforts section, Antero does not flare saleable quality natural gas as a way to manage or dispose of the product.
Antero’s short-term strategy to manage Scope 1 emissions includes:
- Our GHG/methane reduction team meets quarterly to discuss emission reduction Opportunities
- Subject matter experts stay abreast of leading technologies and research from the science community
- Participation in voluntary emission reduction programs
- Monitoring of state and federal regulations
We have explored and implemented a number of emission reduction initiatives due to the efforts outlined above. Figure 8 shows a steady decline in our GHG Scope 1 emission levels and emission intensity. A list detailing these initiatives is provided under the Emission Mitigation Efforts section. (EM-EP-110a.3.)
Scope 2 emissions are a result of the electricity usage required to power Antero’s operations. A third party entity, typically a utility, generates these emissions at their facility. A summary of our Scope 2 emissions for the previous three years is in the following table.
1. World Resources Institute GHG Protocol: Scope 2 Guidance.
2. eGRID2018 average emission factors.
Scope 3 emissions are a result of consumer use of our product, as well as other indirect emissions that occur as part of our supply chain. Antero is currently evaluating its Scope 3 emissions data to provide in future reports.
Criteria and Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions
Antero’s operations emit criteria and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Table 4 summarizes these emissions. We calculate air emissions using engineering calculations, emissions tests, process simulations, and EPA AP-42 emission factors.
Antero’s strategies to reduce VOC emissions are the same as those to reduce methane emissions because we are controlling both pollutants in the same manner. Our reduction efforts for the remaining criteria and hazardous air pollutants include identifying operational efficiencies and taking emission sources out of service as soon as they are no longer needed.
Zero percentage of our air emissions are in or near areas of dense population because our operations are located in rural areas of West Virginia and Ohio. For this analysis, Antero compared the counties in which we operate with counties defined as part of metropolitan statistical areas, as defined by the Office of Management and Budget, and there is no overlap (at the time of that analysis).